As a separate legal entity, a private limited company protects personal assets from business risks. Private limited companies, or “private companies limited by shares” are the most common kind of company used for small to medium sized businesses or trading companies in Hong Kong. Private limited companies too are Sovereign’s most commonly used company type because of their flexibility and security.

The way private limited companies function is quite simple. The share capital of a company limited by shares is divided into a number of shares. These shares are held by the shareholders, who are entitled to a share in the profits of a company that correlate to the number of shares held in relation to the total number of issued shares. The payout of the profit by the company is called a dividend.

When considering a private limited company, please weigh the following advantages and disadvantages.

ADVANTAGES:

  • Taxation: The rate of taxation is 16.5% on Hong Kong source income only. In practice this means that, with careful structuring, as long as a Hong Kong company is not actually doing business in Hong Kong it would normally be possible to arrange the affairs of the company so that no tax would be payable. Detailed advice on this aspect is available on request [hyperlink: Contact Us]
  • Timescale: Private limited companies can be established in approximately one to two working days, but pre-registered companies are available for immediate use.
  • Distinct Legal Entity: A private l company to acquire assets, enter contracts, go into debt, make legal agreements, etc. all in the name of the company.
  • Limited Liability Vehicle: The liability of the shareholders is limited to their investment amount. The personal assets of shareholders can generally not be targeted if the company comes into debt.
  • Ability to raise capital: Capital can be easily raised by bringing in new shareholders or issuing more shares to existing shareholders. Also, compared to other company types, private limited companies generally are more likely to secure bank loans.
  • Perpetual Succession: As a legal entity, a company in good standing will continue despite changes in membership. Changes to the shareholders and their stakes can easily be made without negative affect to the company or its daily operations. In some instances, taxation or costly procedures can be minimized if assets are held in a company.
  • Transfer of Ownership: It is relatively simple to transfer the ownership of a company from one shareholder to another. Partial or complete transfer of ownership can be done by selling all or part of ones total shares, or issuing new shares to a new shareholder. This can simplify inheritance issues and the buying and selling of subsidiaries and properties, thus protecting assets for future growth.
  • Legitimate Business Image: As private limited companies are most commonly used for business and trading, they are taken more seriously by investors and banks.

DISADVANTAGES:

  • Initial and Ongoing Costs: Generally private limited companies are more expensive to set up and maintain than operating a business as a sole proprietor.
  • Audits and Compliance: Hong Kong companies are required to file full audited accounts but small private companies meeting certain criteria may apply for “reporting exemption” and prepare simplified accounts and simplified directors’ reports. All Hong Kong companies must also prepare and file an annual return which gives details of the current directors and of the shareholders who have held shares in the company at any time during the year.
  • Sovereign can help your company to remain compliant with local regulations. Please click here to learn more about our auditing and accounting services. [link: Auditing and accounting services]
  • Shareholder Disclosure: A minimum of one shareholder is required whose details are filed on the public register. Corporate shareholders are permitted and anonymity can be achieved by the use of nominee shareholders.
  • Director Disclosure: A minimum of one director is required and full details must be filed with the Public Registry. Currently corporate directors are permitted but as of early 2014 a Hong Kong Company must appoint at least one natural person as a director. There is no requirement for board meetings to be held within Hong Kong and directors may be resident anywhere in the world.
  • Sovereign can provide professional directorship services for your company. Please click here to learn more about the benefits of hiring a professional director. [LINK directorship services]
  • Registered Office: As a matter of local company law, a company must maintain a registered office address within Hong Kong and must also appoint a Hong Kong resident company secretary. The secretary cannot be the sole director of the company. We would generally provide these services as part of the domiciliary service fee. Please click here for details [link: Registered office]
  • Restrictions on Names and Activities: Names which suggest any connection to the UK head of state are generally prohibited and certain words which suggest specialist activity can only be used when the appropriate licenses have been obtained e.g. bank, insurance company and other specialist financial enterprises.
  • Winding Down Costs and Procedures: Closing a private limited company tends to be more costly and time consuming when compared to a sole proprietorship.

Public Limited Company

Similar to a Private Limited Company, a Public Limited Company is limited by shares. However, the main difference between the two companies is that a public company’s shares are offered to the general public and can have more than 50 shareholders. Most Public Limited companies are derived from medium to large private companies that have grown quickly and want to build their investor base. To facilitate this growth rapidly, most public companies are listed on a stock exchange.

In addition to the advantages and disadvantages of private limited companies, public/listed companies also have the following factors to consider:

  • Rules and Regulations: Public companies raise funds from the public and are thus subject to more strict rules and regulations.
  • Public Disclosure: Public companies must disclose more information.
  • Ability to raise capital: As listed companies are in the public eye, they are more likely to attract capital and investors.
  • Takeovers: An acquisition of a company by another is a threat a company must consider when deciding to list on a stock exchange.

Public Company Limited by Guarantee

Typically used for non-profit organizations and clubs, a public company limited by guarantee is unique from the other forms of limited companies. This kind of company is limited by guarantee rather than capital, meaning that the parties involved are guarantee members and are not shareholders. Instead of investing capital, the members guarantee to contribute a predetermined sum to the company to cover the liabilities of the company. This predetermined sum is due when the company is being wound up.

Please consider the following characteristics of a public company limited by guarantee:

  • Limited Liability: Members have a fixed liability based on the predetermined sum he or she guarantees.
  • Profits: Profits cannot be distributed and working capital might be limited.